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Latest News News by Year As TUSVIS boasts water solubility, high viscosity, high hydrophobic properties and high chemical resistance, it can be used as a thickening agent for eco-friendly, water-based adhesives and paints. In contrast, the MY Series solution shows a rapid increase in viscosity when the temperature becomes higher.

As the molecular structure of the MY Series includes special hydrophobic units, the hydrophobic properties of films can be improved by coating it with this polymer. During HAPAM polymerization, hydrophilic surfmers dissolve in an aqueous phase resulting in homogeneous phase copolymerization of hydrophilic surfmers and acrylamide [ 48 ], which avoid drawbacks of surfactant addition.

Water Soluble Polymers - Solution Properties and Applications | Zahid Amjad | Springer

Moreover, above the critical micellar concentration CMC of surfmer, a microblock copolymerization mechanism carried out which means that a surfmer will be inserted into the backbone structure of acrylamide main chain, which gives rise to enhanced hydrophobic properties [ 49 ], stronger thickening property of HAPAM [ 50 ], and improved salinity resistance of HAPAM. As surfmer copolymerized with monomer and inserted in its main chain so surfmer separation from the polymer chain is prohibited [ 51 ].


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These enhanced stability properties of polymers [ 52 ] have been reported for mechanical stability [ 53 ], electrolyte stability of the latex [ 54 ], a decrease of surfactant migration [ 51 ], and control of surface charge density [ 55 ]. Since surfactants are simply adsorbed onto the surface of particles in conventional emulsion polymerization, consequently increase emulsion stability by permanently fixing of the head groups.

Hydrophobic Polymers Flooding

It has been long desired to obtain nanosized latexes containing higher polymer contents at lower surfactant concentrations [ 56 ]. Moreover, it was realized many years ago that polymerization of surfactants can lead to well-defined polymeric surfactants and potentially to polymerized micelles [ 57 ]. Recently, monomers composed of hydrophobic tail groups and hydrophilic head groups as well as a polymerizable group have been investigated [ 58 ].

Introduction of ionic groups contained in surfmer into polymer chains will improve the water solubility accompanying with perturbation of the hydrophobic association resulting in lowering the thickening effect [ 59 ]. The presence of phenyl group in the surfmer structure is well known to induce stronger van der Waals interactions than typical aliphatic groups due to their planar and polarizable structure, so the incorporation of one or more aromatic group s can stabilize hydrophobic associations involving the alkyl chain.

Furthermore, the benzene rings can act as spacers, increasing the rigidity of polymer chains [ 60 ]. Consequently, incorporation of phenyl rings into the polyacrylamide PAM backbone through surfmer will improve its flooding characteristics in EOR applications. In addition, introduction of cationic groups into the PAM structure increases water solubility [ 61 , 62 ] and decreases the water phase permeability K w as it flows through porous media, which improve oil recovery in oil-displacing applications [ 63 ].

Hydrophobic polymers have attracted much attention on both academic and industrial laboratories for polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery [ 64 , 65 ] owing to their unique characteristics [ 66 ] which can be summarized as follow;. Shows an unusual adsorption isotherm [ 71 ] so can be considered as a wettability modifier.

Does not undergo mechanical degradation under high shear stress such as those encountered in pumps and near the well bore area, since the physical links between chains are disrupted before any irreversible degradation occurs, also they reform and retain their viscosity upon shear decreasing [ 72 ]. High resistance to physicochemical conditions temperature, pH, and ion content prevailing around the wells, so considered a prospective EOR candidate as thickeners or rheology modifiers in high-temperature, high-pressure reservoirs [ 73 — 75 ], reservoir stimulation [ 76 ], and tertiary oil recovery [ 77 ].

In the present chapter, the authors try to overcome the shortage in chemical EOR candidates through synthesis of a novel surfmers H-type by the reaction of a 1-vinyl imidazole as a polymeric moiety containing double bond and 4-dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid surfactant, then hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide HAPAM prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization of acrylamide AM monomer, divinyl sulfone as a hydrophobic cross-linked moiety and surfmers, to chemically anchor a surfmer and hydrophobic cross-linker moiety onto the hydrophilic backbone of acrylamide chain.

After that a hydrophobically associating polyacrylamides-SiO 2 HAPAM-SiO 2 nanocomposite was prepared through copolymerization of acrylamide monomer with silica nanoparticles through one-shot synthesis. The rheological properties of copolymer solutions were investigated with respect to the polymer concentration, shear rate, shear stress, temperature, and salinity. Moreover, evaluation of behavioral characteristics and performance of these copolymers solution on wettability alteration, mobility ratio reduction, interfacial tension IFT reduction, and recovered oil amount under harsh reservoir are also reported [ 78 , 79 ].

Note that 0. The white product was precipitated and recrystallized in 50 ml ethyl acetate upon cooling [ 78 ]. An aqueous solution of acrylamide in distilled water was gently bubbled with nitrogen gas for 30 min. After reaction completion, viscous polymer gel was precipitated by acetone, redissolved in water, and reprecipitated in acetone then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with methanol for 24 h until a white solid obtained. B; surfmer concentration, mol L —1. F; pH-value. G; reaction time, h. H; deionized water, g. Moreover, critical micelle concentration, surface excess concentration, and surface area of prepared surfmer and original surfactant indicate higher surface activity of prepared surfmer, which increases latex stability [ 78 ].

Rheological and solution properties were evaluated under simulated reservoir conditions as a function of polymer concentration and reservoir salinity, temperature, and shear rate. The results show good salt and temperature resistance, interfacial tension reduction and enhanced viscosity characteristics.


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The capability of polymer and nanocomposite to increase oil recovery was assessed through a linear packed sandstone model, as previously reported [ 78 , 80 ]. Core flood tests were carried out under simulated reservoir conditions where a sand cleaning procedure, packing, flooding experiments, and recovered oil amount were discussed elsewhere [ 78 , 80 ]. After aging with crude oil for a day at elevated temperature, the plate was found to be oil-wet.

Images are analyzed mathematically to calculate the contact angle. This means that sandstone grains become water-wet. Improved oil recovery by polymer flooding involves injection of a mobility control agent e. In this chapter, the authors reported about synthesis of hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide HAPAM prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization and its modified nanocomposite derivative. Rheological properties were assessed in accordance with salinity and temperature tolerance, polymer concentration, and shear rates.

Core flooding carried out via a linear pressurized packed model [ 9 , 78 — 80 ].

Solution Properties and Applications

Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be drawn:. HAPAM-SiO 2 nanocomposite prepared by introducing silica nanoparticles through one-shot synthesis via Aza-Michael addition reaction, so we can overcome shortages arising from agglomeration and coagulation of modified silica particles during emulsion polymerization reactions. You can view this on the NLA website. Login Register. Advanced search Search history. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional. See what's been added to the collection in the current 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks months years.

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